Mitochondria control of physiology and disease: beyond ATP
For decades, the mitochondria have been primarily viewed as biosynthetic and bioenergetic organelles generating metabolites for the production of macromolecules and ATP, respectively. Our work has elucidated that mitochondria have a third distinct role whereby they release reactive oxygen species (ROS) and metabolites such as L-2-hydroxyglutarate to initiate physiological and pathological processes including hypoxic activation of HIFs, cellular differentiation, T cell activation and cancer cell proliferation. Thus, mitochondria function as signaling organelles.
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