Marshall W. Nirenberg Lecture
This lecture, established in 2011, recognizes Marshall Nirenberg for his work to decipher the genetic code, which resulted in his receiving the 1968 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Nirenberg’s research career at the NIH spanned more than 50 years, and his research also focused on neuroscience, neural development, and the homeobox genes. The Nirenberg lecture recognizes outstanding contributions to genetics and molecular biology.
Heterogeneity of Breast Cancer Genomes: Going Beyond Therapy to Risk Assessment and Precision Healthcare
(This will be a hybrid lecture, in person at Lipsett Amphitheather and on NIH VideoCast.) Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, with an estimated 2.3 million new cases diagnosed in 2021 worldwide. Geographic variations in age specific incidence and mortality point to differences in etiology. Decades after discovery, the estrogen receptor remains the single most important determinant of outcomes in breast cancer but innovative and precise biology-driven approaches to therapy are being integrated into clinical practice.
For this talk, Dr. Green will describe her laboratory's recent efforts to define how ribosome elongation distress is connected to cellular signaling pathways involved in cell fate determination. She will discuss how colliding ribosomes are central to this activation, and she will elucidate how a combination of approaches — from genetics, to biochemistry, to structural biology, to genomics — can reveal such insights.
Not satisfied with nature’s vast catalyst repertoire, we want to create new protein catalysts and expand the space of genetically encoded enzyme functions. I will describe how we can use the most powerful biological design process, evolution, to optimize existing enzymes and invent new ones, thereby circumventing our profound ignorance of how sequence encodes function. Using mechanistic understanding and mimicking nature’s evolutionary processes, we can generate whole new enzyme families that catalyze synthetically important reactions not known in biology.
Point mutations represent the majority of known human genetic variants associated with disease but are difficult to correct cleanly and efficiently using standard genome-editing methods. For his lecture, Dr. Liu will describe the development, application, and evolution of base editing, a novel approach to genome editing that directly converts a target base pair to another base pair in living cells without requiring DNA backbone cleavage or donor DNA templates.
Dr. Church's lecture will focus on transformative technologies moving at exponential rates for reading, writing and editing genomes, epigenomes, and other omes. Applications include cells resistant to all viruses via new genetic codes, production and analysis of organs for transplantation, and therapy testing.
For many years, Dr. Ley's laboratory has used mouse models of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) to establish key principles of AML pathogenesis. The lab established that the initiating event for Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia is the PML-RARA fusion gene created by the t(15;17) that is found in nearly all patients with this disease. The roles of cooperating mutations and the cellular milieu for APL pathogenesis have also been established.
Dr. Page's laboratory seeks to understand fundamental differences between males and females in health and disease, both within and beyond the reproductive tract. Most recently, the Page lab discovered that XY and XX sex chromosomes account for subtle differences in the molecular biology of male and female cells and tissues throughout the body. These findings emerged from the lab’s comparative genomic and evolutionary studies of the sex chromosomes of humans, other mammals, and birds.
Dr. Deisseroth’s lecture will report on the development of optogenetics and CLARITY technologies. In the optogenetics domain, he will discuss strategies for targeting microbial opsins and light to meet the challenging constraints of the freely-behaving mammal, newly engineered microbial opsin genes spanning a range of optical, kinetic, and ion permeability properties, high-speed behavioral and neural activity-readout tools compatible with real-time optogenetic control, and the application of these tools to develop circuit-based insights into anxiety, depression, and motivated behaviors.
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